This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. There are oh-so-many shades of purple (and white! A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[5][6][7] probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia. Besides, it requires a continuous supply of water and fertilizer according to soil quality.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'indiagardening_com-box-4','ezslot_5',109,'0','0'])); Manjri Gota, Vaishali, Pusa Kranti, Arka Sheel, Pusa Ankur, Arka Neelkanth, Pant Rituraj, T-3, Dudhia, Swarna Shree, Swarna Mani, Swarna shyamli, Swarna Pratibha, Swarna Shobha, Arka Avnish, Arka Harshitha, Kuchia, Pant Samrat. Brinjals can help in keeping your gut healthy and improve digestion, as they are a rich source of fibers. In Georgia, for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. [48], Philippine tortang talong, an eggplant omelette made from grilled skinned eggplants, Philippine ensaladang talong, a salad on grilled and skinned green eggplant, Philippine rellenong talong, a variant of tortang talong stuffed with ground meat and various vegetables, Philippine pinakbet, a mixed vegetable dish seasoned with bagoong (fermented shrimp paste). It can be stuffed. Flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and may be self- or cross-pollinated.[53]. These varieties were developed by inserting a protein gene (Cry1Fa1) from a soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into the brinjal’s DNA. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. It remains in scientific use. However, both varieties have a sweeter flavor and do not contain many seeds, which usually causes the bitterness. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. [13] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[14]. Among 200 germplasm/variety of brinjal screened against M. incognitafor resistant reaction, eleven varieties viz. In the La Mancha region of central Spain, a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil, and red peppers. Eggplants are such delicious things. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. This new variety of genetically modified brinjal was quietly given approval without any data in the public domain, said several experts who spoke at an August 27 webinar organised by the Coalition for a GM-Free India, a collective of non-profits campaigning against genetically modified products. Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). Brinjal is an erect annual plant, often spiny, with large, coarsely lobed fuzzy leaves, 10-20 cm long and 5-10 cm broad. Similarly, H.C.F. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit. More often than not, they are yellow in... 2. and Solanum melongena var. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century). Required fields are marked *, Can You Eat Banana Leaves? [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. In 2018, world production of eggplants was 54 million tonnes, led by China with 63% of the total and India with 24% (table). Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. The average yield of Bt brinjal varieties/ha was 19.8 tonnes compared to 16.55 tonnes/ha for non-Bt brinjal varieties, indicating a 19.6% higher yield of Bt brinjal. It is also called aubergine (French word) in … The highest yield difference (+22.9%) was observed in Bogra, with the lowest yield difference in Jessore (+ 14.5%). In a densely populated area, the growth and production of brinjal is essential to the region and is a primary source of income for poor farmers. Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. esculentum (L.) Nees", "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert", "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette", "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine", "North, South, Go Pick! The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. S. melongena is included on a list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone. An actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, included Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Scientists inserted a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (thus the name, Bt) into nine brinjal varieties. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. Indian Eggplant – Light purple, round and tender, Indian eggplants, also known as baby eggplants, have a velvety interior and are perfect for soups, stews, and dips.. Rosa Bianca Eggplant – Heirloom variety Rosa Bianca eggplants are quick to catch the eye, Their bright purple to pink and white exteriors are plump and round. The fruits are rich in various other nutrients as well, for example, iron, calcium, and potassium that help in keeping your bones healthy. [24], Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎). 6 Eggplant Varieties to Try. The plants were engineered to resist the fruit and shoot borer, a devastating insect whose larvae bore into the stem and fruit of an eggplant. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. The white, egg-shaped varieties of the eggplant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[22] a term first attested in 1811. This skin color for these eggplants range from light purple to deep purple to almost black in color. These varieties were developed by inserting a protein gene (Cry1Fa1) from a soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into the brinjal’s DNA. Eggplant Varieties Globe Eggplant (a.k.a. It is known by different names like Begun (Bengali), ringna (Gujarathi), baingan ( Hindi), badane (Kannada), waangum (Kashmiri), vange ( Marathi), baigan (Oriya), Vashuthana ( Malayalam), Kathiri (Tamil), venkaya (Telugu) and Peethabhala (Sanskrit). Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)", https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eggplant&oldid=993466808, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. , does have to be the second-largest brinjal producing country in the summer heat as well as low conditions... 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